There are more and greater archaeological sites being dug up around the world every year and much more to be discovered. Derived from the Greek, the word ‘archaeology’ means the pursuit of ancient knowledge.
The purpose of archeology is to learn more about past societies and the development of mankind. More than 99% of humanity has evolved within prehistoric cultures that did not use writing, from which no written record exists for study purposes. Without such written sources, archeology is the only way to understand prehistoric societies.
The archeological sites present not only ancient remains but provide us fruitfull information about ancient culture and tradition and sometimes this information can be so complex that it can take decades to decode information. Tons of puzzles scholars have resolved and tons yet to resolve.
The archeological sites are present in every corner of the earth. It is just a matter of time when and how that site will be revealed to the world. Here top 10 oldest archeological sites aging 10000 BC – 3000 BC are listed
10 – Dwarka 3000 BC [Mythological Date]
Discovery – 1983
Archaeologist – S. R. Rao
Region – Gujrat, India
Abandoned – 1800 BC
- The Dwarka was established by Hindu God Krishna.
- Before the discovery of the Dwarka submerged city, it was a mythological city.
- The city was submerged into the ocean due to an increase in ocean water label.
- The Submerged Dwarka city is ~30 KM far from the current shore.
- The departure, or death, of Krishna’s incarnation, is taken at the end of a previous age, of a yuga, and the beginning of the Kali Yuga which is approximately 3100 BC. If Dwarka was created by Lord Krishna then artifacts could have dated to 3100 BC. On the other hand, artifacts show the date of 1700 to 1800 BC which contradicts with Mythology which is believed in India
9 – Delos 5000 BC
Discovered – 1873
Archaeologist – French School of Archaeology
Region – Mykonos, Greece, 37°23′36″N 25°16′16″E
Area – 3.43 km2 (1.32 sq mi)
Abandoned – 69 BC
- Apollo and Artemis, the two most important gods of the Greek Pantheon were born there.
- Delos was attacked and looted twice in 88 BC, the King of Pontus, the enemies of the Romans, and later, in 69 BC, a colleague of mithanlates, by pirates of Athendoras, later in 69 B.C. Since then the island has been gradually dropped and rapidly fell into decline.
- Delos as an independent port, all commercial activity of the Eastern Mediterranean was gathered on the Isle.
- Rich businessmen, bankers, and ship-owners from around the world have settled there, attracting many builders, artists, and craftsmen.
8 – Mohenjo-Daro 3300 BC
Discovered – 1920
Archaeologist – R. D. Banerji, Kashinath Narayan Dikshit, and John Marshall
Region – Larkana, Sindh, Pakistan, 27°19′45″N 68°08′20″E
Area – 250 ha (620 acres)
Abandoned- 1900 BC
- The city’s original name is unknown. Based on his analysis of a Mohenjo-Daro seal, Iravatham Mahadevan speculates that the city’s ancient name could have been Kukkutarma
- It was one of the largest cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization
With the excavations done so far, over 700 wells are present at Mohenjo-Daro
- It is one of the most famous archeological sites in the world
- The Oxford Handbook of Cities in World History offers a “weak” estimate of a peak population of around 40,000
7 – Akrotiri 4500 BC-3000 BC
Discovered – 1967
Archaeologist – Spyridon Marinatos
Region – Santorini, Greece, 36°21′05″N 25°24′13″E
Area – Few Hundred Meters
Abandoned – 1500 BC
- The city had a perfect water supply and drainage system in place
- The city had Multi-floor buildings
- The town was destroyed and abandoned in 1500 B.C. as a result of an earthquake
- Hundreds of wall paintings and artifacts in good condition found during excavation.
6 – Badarian culture 5000 BC – 4000 BC
Discovered – 1922
Archaeologist – Guy Brunton and Gertrude Caton-Thompson
Region – 30 km
Area – Egypt, 27° 0′ 0″ N, 31° 25′ 0″ E
- The Badarian culture provides the earliest direct evidence of agriculture in Upper Egypt
- The Badari culture is primarily known from cemeteries in the low desert.
- Badari culture planted wheat and barley, and kept cattle, sheep, and goats
- Badari sites were most likely traded up the river.
5 – Tepe Sialk 6000 BC-5500 BC
Discovered – 1933
Archaeologist – Roman Ghirshman, Tania Ghirshman
Region- Isfahan Province, Iran, 33°58′08″N 51°24′17″E
- Artifacts consisted of some very fine painted potteries.
- Tepe Sialk was an important metal production center in central Iran
- At the beginning of the third millennium, this site went abandoned.
- After the abandonment of more than a millennium, the Sialk site is reoccupied in the second half of the second millennium.
4 – Mehrgarh 7000 BC
Discovered – 1974
Archaeologist – French archaeologists Jean-François Jarrige and Catherine Jarrige
Region -Dhadar, Balochistan, Pakistan, South Asia, 29°23′N 67°37′E
Area – 495-acre (2.00 km2)
Abandoned – Between 2600 BCE and 2000 BCE
- Early phases of farming, pottery, other archaeological artifacts, some domesticated plants and herd animals.
Cultivated six-row barley, einkorn and emmer wheat, jujubes, and dates
- In April 2006, it was announced in the scientific journal Nature that the oldest (and first early Neolithic) evidence for the drilling of human teeth in vivo (i.e. in a living person) was found in Mehrgarh.
- The first button seals were produced from terracotta and bone
- Somewhere between 2600 BCE and 2000 BCE, the city seems to have been largely abandoned in favor of the larger and fortified town Nausharo five miles away
Early Mehrgarh residents lived in mud-brick houses, stored their grain in granaries
3 – Çatalhöyük 7500 BC
Discovered – 1958
Archaeologist – James Mellaart
Region – Küçükköy, Konya Province, Turkey, 37°40′00″N 32°49′41″E, Anatolia
Area – Few Hundred Meters
Abandoned – 5700 BC
- The Çatalhöyük was composed entirely of domestic buildings, with no obvious public buildings.
- The average population of between 5,000 and 7,000 is a reasonable estimate
- No footpaths or streets were used between the dwellings, which were clustered in a honeycomb-like maze.
- The Çatalhöyük has strong evidence of an egalitarian society, as no houses with distinctive features have been found so far.
2 – Göbekli Tepe 10000 BC
Discovered – 1963
Archaeologist – Klaus Schmidt
Region – Örencik, Şanlıurfa Province, Turkey, 37°13′23″N 38°55′21″E
Area – Height of 15 m (49 ft.) and is about 300 m (980 ft.) in diameter [~12 Football Fields]
Abandoned – 8000 BC
- Massive T-shaped stone pillars – the world’s oldest known megaliths.
- Claimed as the world’s first temple.
- The complex was not simply abandoned and forgotten to be gradually destroyed by the elements. Instead, each enclosure was buried quite deliberately under as much as 300 to 500 cubic meters (390 to 650 cu yd.) of refuse, creating a tell consisting mainly of small limestone fragments, stone vessels, and stone tools. Why the enclosures were buried is unknown, but it preserved them for posterity.
1 – Ganj Dareh 10000 BC
Discovered – 1965
Archaeologist – Canadian archaeologist, Philip Smith
Region – Gamas-Ab Valley, Kermanshah Province, Iran, 34.2721 N 47.4758 E
- The Oldest settlement remains on the site date back to ca. 10,000 years ago
- The earliest evidence for goat domestication in the world
- Evidence for domesticated crops of two-row barley