The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization in the northwestern regions of South Asia, lasting from 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE, and in its mature form from 2600 BCE to 1900 BCE. Along with ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia and Minoan Civilization, it was one of three early civilizations of the region comprising North Africa, West Asia, and South Asia, and of the three, the most widespread, its sites spanning an area stretching from northeast Afghanistan, through much of Pakistan, and into western and northwestern India.
It flourished in the basins of the Indus River, which flows through the length of Pakistan, and along with a system of perennial, mostly monsoon-fed, rivers that once coursed in the vicinity of the seasonal Ghaggar-Hakra river in northwest India and eastern Pakistan. Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-Daro, Sindh province, Pakistan, showing the Great Bath in the foreground. Mohenjo-Daro, on the right bank of the Indus River, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the first site in South Asia to be so declared.
Miniature Votive Images or Toy Models from Harappa, ca. 2500 BCE. Hand-modeled terra-cotta figurines indicate the yoking of zebu oxen for pulling a cart and the presence of the chicken, a domesticated jungle fowl.
The civilization’s cities were noted for their urban planning, baked brick houses, elaborate drainage systems, water supply systems, clusters of large non-residential buildings, and new techniques in handicraft (carnelian products, seal carving) and metallurgy (copper, bronze, lead, and tin). The large cities of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa very likely grew to contain between 30,000 and 60,000 habitats.
Discovered – 1920
Archaeologist – R. D. Banerji, Kashinath Narayan Dikshit, and John Marshall
Region – Larkana, Sindh, Pakistan, 27°19′45″N 68°08′20″E
Area – 250 ha (620 acres)
Abandoned- 1900 BC
- The city’s original name is unknown. Based on his analysis of a Mohenjo-Daro seal, Iravatham Mahadevan speculates that the city’s ancient name could have been Kukkutarma
- It was one of the largest cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization
With the excavations done so far, over 700 wells are present at Mohenjo-Daro
- It is one of the most famous archeological sites in the world
- The Oxford Handbook of Cities in World History offers a “weak” estimate of a peak population of around 40,000
Was Indus Valley civilization Vedic civilization and it expended to the north part of India or any part in India after abandonment? There are a few open questions on which researchers currently doing research.