5 Top Archaeological Sites of Siberia
5 Top Archaeological Sites in Siberia
There were so many important cultures and cultural regions in the ancient world like Vedic culture which mostly belong to Indus valley civilization (Here are a few interesting articles about Vedas). The great pyramids of Giza represent the great Egyptian culture. In the same way, the Sumerian culture that flourished in the western part of Asia.
In the same way, Siberia is a country which has been a home of several archaeologically distinct cultures from the Paleolithic period to the modern period. The cultures of western and southern Siberia were pastoralists, while the eastern part was dominated by hunter-gatherers.
Siberia is characterized by a great deal of variety in climate, vegetation, and landscape. That is the reason hundreds of archaeological sites have been discovered in Siberia belong to different cultures and regions. Out of those, the top five important archaeological sites are mentioned here.
It is an important archaeological site that has been excavated for more than 100 years since 1884.
The complex was first excavated in 1884 by I. T. Savenkov, and the settlement is dated to 20 000 – 18 000 BP. It was a very cold part of the last ice age, from there northern ice sheet was not far away.
Afontova Gora is a complex, consisting of multiple stratigraphic layers, of five or more campsites. The campsites show evidence of mammoth hunting.
Afontova Gora II is the site where the human fossil remains were found. The site was first excavated in 1912-1914 and the first human fossils were discovered in 1924 at the site.
- The remains of mammoth, Arctic fox, Arctic hare, reindeer, bison, and horse were discovered at the site.
- The fossils of two distinct individuals were discovered in the initial excavations.
- Over 20,000 artifacts were discovered at layer 3: this layer produced over 450 tools and over 250 osseous artifacts (bone, antler, ivory).
Humans Remains Finding and DNA Study
The bodies of two individuals, known as Afontova Gora2 (AG2 in 1924) and Afontova Gora3 (AG3 in 2014) were discovered within the complex. DNA analysis of AG2 confirmed that the individual was male and close to the genetic affinities to Mal’ta. DNA analysis confirmed that the AG3 3 individual was female and belonged to Haplogroup R1b.
Chertovy Vorota Cave
Chertovy Vorota Cave is a Neolithic archaeological site located in the Sikhote-Alin mountains, about 12 km (7 mi) from the town of Dalnegorsk in Primorsky Krai, Russia. This site was discovered in 1973 and its knows as Devil’s Gate Cave as well.
The cave consists of the main chamber, measuring around 45 m (148 ft) in length, and several smaller galleries behind it. Chertovy Vorota provides secure evidence for some of the oldest surviving textiles found in the archaeological record. The cave thought to be established 9400 BP and got abandoned at 7200 BP.
- Around 600 lithic, osteological and shell artifacts was discovered.
- 700 pottery fragments and over 700 animal bones were recovered from the site.
- A .6 cm thick jade disk made from brownish-green jade and measuring 5.2 cm (2 in) in diameter was also recovered from Chertovy Vorota.
- The remains of carbonized textile fragments were found within the cave. The textile remains were directly dated to around 9400-8400 BP, the earliest evidence in the archaeological record for textile remains from East Asia.
- The remains of 7 individuals who were discovered within the cave were directly dated to around 5726-5622 BC.
Six of seven individuals whose remains have been recovered from the cave have been DNA tested.
- Three of the specimens were thought to be adult males.
- Two were thought to be adult females.
- One was sub-adult of about 12-13 years of age.
- One was thought to be a juvenile of about 6-7 years of age.
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Siberia’s “Valley of the Kings”
This wide green deep valley is situated a few kilometers from the north of Turan. This archaeological site is famous for its pancake-shaped Scythian kurgans (burial mounds) named after the village of Arzhaan at the end of the paved road. These have produced the most significant archaeological finds ever made in Tuva.
During excavations in 2001 archaeologists unearthed some magnificent artifacts in several graves dating from the 7th century BC.
The ‘Siberian Valley of the Kings’, was named after its Egyptian counterpart, is located in the Asian part of the Russian Federation.
It earned its name due to the numerous giant kurgan tombs, often full of treasures of thought to belong to royalty.
A dig in the early 1970s turned up thousands of gold and silver artifacts plus the graves of two Scythian VIPs, 16 servants, and 160 horses.
In 2020, a 2,500-year-old tomb of a Scythian warrior has been found who was buried with his weapon and golden ornaments.
Arkaim is an ancient fortified settlement, situated in the steppe of the Southern Ural, 8.2 km (5.10 mi) north-to-northwest of the village of Amursky, just north of the border with Kazakhstan. It was discovered in 1987 by a team of archaeologists led by Gennady Zdanovich, preventing the planned flooding of the area for the creation of a reservoir.
The settlement covered approximately 20,000 square meters (220,000 square feet) and had a settlement during the 4th Millenium B.C.
The diameter of the enclosing wall was about 160 meters (520 feet), and its thickness was 4 to 5 meters. The height was 5.5 meters. The settlement was surrounded by a 2-meter deep moat. Approximately 1,500 to 2,500 people could have lived in Arkaim during settlement.
In the houses, there are wells, storages, kitchens with fireplace, bedrooms. In each “flat” there was a household yard and a workshop.
Residents of houses fashioned dishes wove, sewed clothes, they did carpentry and assembled chariots (the oldest in the world).
There were craftsmen-bronze makers, blacksmiths, and casters.
A statue of man found who is looking at the sky.
Por-Bazhyn meaning a clay house is a 1300-year-old fortified settlement that occupies a small island in Lake Tere-Khol, about 1,300 m (4,300 ft) above sea level in the Sengelen mountains of southern Siberia close to the Russian border with Mongolia. Its construction methods show that Por-Bazhyn was built within the Tang Chinese architectural tradition.
The walls of the site enclose a rectangular area of 215 m × 162 m, oriented east-west, and covering almost the entire island. Excavations suggest that it was built as an Uyghur palace (A Turkish king) in the 8th century AD.
Por-Bazhyn has discovered in the 18th century but large scale excavation work started in 2007.
During the excavation, a stone vessel, an iron dagger, one silver earring (probably a man’s), several iron tools were found at the site.
I hope these Siberian archaeological sites gave you a good read. Share your views in the comments section below.
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